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WEB DEVELOPMENT

Module mod rewrite Tutorial (Part 3)
By: Developer Shed
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    2003-08-09

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    The Apache server power commander part 3
    By Dirk Brockhausen

    In the two preceding parts of this tutorial we explained the basics of Rules and Conditions.

    We will now follow up with two examples to illustrate their use for somewhat more complex applications.

    The first example deals with dynamicall generated pages while the second example will cover calling up ".txt" files.

    For our first example, let's assume that you want to sell several items of merchandise on your web site.

    Your clients are guided to various detailed product descriptions via a script:

    http://www.yoursite.com/cgi-bin/shop.cgi?product1
    http://www.yoursite.com/cgi-bin/shop.cgi?product2
    http://www.yoursite.com/cgi-bin/shop.cgi?product3

    These URLs are included as links on your site.

    If you want to submit these dynamic pages to the search engines, you are confronted with the problem that most of them will not accept URLs containing
    the "?" character.

    However, it would be perfectly possible to submit an URL of the following format:

    http://www.yoursite.com/cgi-bin/shop.cgi/product1

    Here, the "?" character has been replaced by "/".

    Yet more pleasing to the eye would be a URL of this type:

    http://www.yoursite.com/shop/product1

    To the search engine, this appears to be just another acceptable hyperlink, with "shop" presenting a directory containing files "product1", "product2", etc.

    If a visitor clicks this link on a search engine's results page, this URL must be reconverted to make sure that "shop.cgi?product1" will actually be called.

    To this effect we will make use of mod_rewrite with the following entries:

    RewriteEngine on
    Options +FollowSymlinks
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteRule ^(.*)shop/(.*)$ $1cgi-bin/shop.cgi?$2

    The variables $1 and $2 constitute so-called
    "backreferences". These are related to text groups.

    Everything called in the clicked URL which is located before "shop" plus everything following "shop/" is defined by and stored in the two variables $1 and $2

    Up to this point our given examples made use of rules such as this one:

    RewriteRule ^.htaccess*$ - [F]

    However, we did not yet achieve a true rewrite in the sense that one URL would be switched to another.

    For the entry in our current example:

    RewriteRule ^(.*)shop/(.*)$ $1cgi-bin/shop.cgi?$2

    this general syntax applies:

    RewriteRule currentURL rewrittenURL

    As you can see, this command executes a real rewrite.

    In addition to installing the ".htaccess" file, all links in your normal HTML pages which follow the format "cgi-bin/shop.cgi?product" must be changed to: "shop/product" (without the quotes).

    When a spider visits a normal HTML page of this kind it will also follow or crawl the product links because there is no question mark contained in the link anymore to prevent it from doing so.

    So employing this method you can convert dynamically generated product descriptions into seemingly static web pages and feed them to the search engines.

    In our second example we will discuss how to redirect calls for ".txt" files to a program script.

    Many webspace providers running Apache will feature system log files only in common format. What this means is that these logs will not store visitor Referrers and UserAgents.

    However, in relation to "robots.txt" calls it is preferable to have access to this information in order to learn more about visiting spiders than merely their IPa.

    To effect this, the entries in ".htaccess" should be as follows:

    RewriteEngine on
    Options +FollowSymlinks
    RewriteBase /
    RewriteRule ^\robots.txt$ /text.cgi?%{REQUEST_URI}


    Now, when "robots.txt" is called, the applied Rule will redirect your visitor to the program script "text.cgi".

    Furthermore, a variable is conveyed to the script which will be processed by the program.

    "REQUEST_URI" defines the name of the file you expect to be called. In out example this is "robots.txt".

    The script will now read the contents of "robots.txt" and will forward them to the web browser or the search engine spider.

    Finally, the visitor hit is archived in the log file. To this effect, the script will pull the environmental variables "$ENV{'HTTP_USER_AGENT'}" etc. This will provide the required information.

    Here is the source code for the cgi script mentioned above:

    <BEGIN SOURCE CODE>
    #!/usr/bin/perl
    # If required, adjust line above to point to Perl 5.
    ######################################################
    # (c) Copyright 2000 by fantomaster.com #
    # All rights reserved. #
    ######################################################

    $stats_dir = "stats";
    $log_file = "stats.log";

    $remote_host = "$ENV{'REMOTE_HOST'}";
    $remote_addr = "$ENV{'REMOTE_ADDR'}";
    $user_agent = "$ENV{'HTTP_USER_AGENT'}";
    $referer = "$ENV{'HTTP_REFERER'}";
    $document_name = "$ENV{'QUERY_STRING'}";

    open (FILE, "robots.txt");
    @TEXT = <FILE>;
    close (FILE);

    &get_date;

    &log_hits
    ("$date $remote_host $remote_addr $user_agent $referer $document_name\n");

    print "Content-type: text/plain\n\n";
    print @TEXT;

    exit;

    sub get_date {
    ($sec,$min,$hour,$mday,$mon,$year,$wday,$yday,$isdst)=localtime();
    $mon++;
    $sec = sprintf ("%02d", $sec);
    $min = sprintf ("%02d", $min);
    $hour = sprintf ("%02d", $hour);
    $mday = sprintf ("%02d", $mday);
    $mon = sprintf ("%02d", $mon);
    $year = scalar localtime;
    $year =~ s/.*?(\d{4})/$1/;
    $date="$year-$mon-$mday, $hour:$min:$sec";
    }

    sub log_hits {
    open (HITS, ">>$stats_dir/$log_file");
    print HITS @_;
    close (HITS);
    }

    <END SOURCE CODE>

    To install the script, upload it to your web site's main or DocumentRoot directory by ftp and change file permissions to 755.

    Next, create the directory "stats".

    A more detailed description on how to install a script can he found in our online manuals, e.g. here:

    < http://www.fantomaster.com/fantomasSuite/logFrog/lfhelp.txt >


    If your server's configuration does not permit execution of Perl or CGI scripts in the main directory (DocumentRoot), you may wish to try the following RewriteRule instead:

    RewriteRule ^\robots.txt$ /cgi-bin/text.cgi?%{REQUEST_URI}

    Note, however, that in this case you will have to modify the paths accordingly in the program script!

    Finally, here's the solution to our quiz from the previous issue of fantomNews:


    RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR} ^216\.32\.64
    RewriteRule ^.*$ - [F]

    Quiz question:

    If we don't write "^216\.32\.64\." for a regular
    expression in the configuration above, but
    "^216\.32\.64" instead, will we get the identical
    effect, i.e. will this exclude the same IPs?

    The regular expression ^216\.32\.64 will apply e.g. to the following strings:

    216.32.64
    216.32.640
    216.32.641
    216.32.64a
    216.32.64abc
    216.32.64.12
    216.32.642.12

    Hence, "4" may be followed by any character string.

    However, IP addresses can only have the maximal value
    255.255.255.255 - which implies that e.g. 216.32.642.12 is not a valid IP. The only valid IP in the list above is 216.32.64.12!

    Although the two regular expressions "^216\.32\.64\." and "^216\.32\.64" allow for different strings, due to the technical limitation of IP addresses to 0-255 this range of IPs will remain excluded.

    Continue with this tutorial >>>


    DISCLAIMER: The content provided in this article is not warranted or guaranteed by Developer Shed, Inc. The content provided is intended for entertainment and/or educational purposes in order to introduce to the reader key ideas, concepts, and/or product reviews. As such it is incumbent upon the reader to employ real-world tactics for security and implementation of best practices. We are not liable for any negative consequences that may result from implementing any information covered in our articles or tutorials. If this is a hardware review, it is not recommended to open and/or modify your hardware.

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