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Chapter 8: Clean code, comments and escape codes
By: Developer Shed
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    Clean Code...

    Clean code means that your HTML coding follows all specifications. Here are a few ways to keep your code clean:
    • Don't type special characters into your code, instead type their escape code... many characters should NEVER be typed directly into HTML code... for example the "<", ">", the "", "&", and the " itself. Instead, type &escape_code; (Ampersand, Escape Code for Character, then a semicolon). For these 5 characters, here are the escape codes...
      • For the < type &lt;
      • For the > type &gt;
      • For the type &copy;
      • For the & type &amp;
      • For the " type &quot;

    • Use quotes around values in attributes... For example, if you want a horizontal rule that is half of the screen width, type <hr width="50%"> rather than <hr width=50%>, or if you want one that is size 5 type <hr size="5"> rather than <hr size=5>.

    • Don't overlap tags... Overlapping occurs when Tag A starts, Tag B starts, Tag A closes, then Tag B closes. This will cause errors in sensitive browsers. For Example, it will not render correctly in Navigator 4.0 Beta1, Netscape purposefully built into the browser so developers could catch errors. Examples:
      • Wrong Way (Overlaps):
        <font size=+1><b>This is Bold and One Font Size Bigger</font></b>
        Right Way (Doesn't Overlap):
        <font size=+1><b>This is Bold and One Font Size Bigger</b></font>
      • Wrong Way (Overlaps):
        <a href="here.html"><i>This link is italicized</a></i>
        Right Way (Doesn't Overlap):
        <a href="here.html"><i>This link is italicized</i></a>
    The Comment Tag...

    If you are writing an HTML document, sometimes you may want to put little reminders to yourself with your code so that you will be able to interpret your coding better. A comment will not appear in a web browser when the page is displayed... it is only visible when the source code is viewed. You start commented text with
    <!-- and end it with -->.

    Your own HTML page...

    Add the following to your HTML page ("Home.htm"): (the blue text is what to add)

    <head><title>My Home Page</title></head>

    <!-- The body starts here - and a background image is loaded -->
    <body background="bgnd.gif">

    <!-- This is a heading, in blue -->
    <center><font color="Blue"><h1>YOURNAME's Home Page</h1></font></center>
    <!-- This is a horizontal line -->
    <!-- My name and the two images are all part of a link - which is a "mailto" link -->
    This is the home page of <a href="mailto:YOUR EMAIL ADDRESS"><img src="bullet.gif" border=0><b>YOURNAME</b>.<img src="bullet.gif" border=0></a>
    <p>Type something about yourself here. Describe briefly who you are and what you do for a living. Remember to use bold and italic text, for emphasis.</p>
    <h2>My favourite Web Sites</h2>

    <!-- This list is an unordered list -->
    <li> <a href="http://www.xencon.com">Xenon Web Design</a> </li>
    <li> <a href="http://www.microsoft.com">Microsoft</a> </li>
    <li> <a href="http://www.sybase.com">Sybase</a> </li>
    <li> <a href="http://www.sybase.co.za">Sybase South Africa</a> </li>


    Save the text file as "Home.htm".

    << Chapter 7


    DISCLAIMER: The content provided in this article is not warranted or guaranteed by Developer Shed, Inc. The content provided is intended for entertainment and/or educational purposes in order to introduce to the reader key ideas, concepts, and/or product reviews. As such it is incumbent upon the reader to employ real-world tactics for security and implementation of best practices. We are not liable for any negative consequences that may result from implementing any information covered in our articles or tutorials. If this is a hardware review, it is not recommended to open and/or modify your hardware.

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